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Games in the Spotlight: Teaching English to the Young Learner – by Christina Nicole Giannikas & Lou McLaughlin

Christina and Lou issue 40Benefits of Games for YLs (3 – 17 years)

Games are an essential part of any YL teacher toolkit. The reason for this is understood when we compare adult and young learners. YLs are in the process of learning how to learn, and games assist YLs in cognitive, social and linguistic development (McKay, 2006). There are identifiable characteristics which highlight the different stages of development of the YL (Pinter, 2011), the most notable being short attention span. This essentially means we have to ensure they are engaged, both with the material and the task at hand. When YLs are having fun they are engaged, and this is most easily achieved through the use of games in the classroom. At the most fundamental level, Brewster, Ellis & Girard (2002) argue that games provide a link between home and school. They are a means of bringing the external, natural environment of play into the classroom. Additionally, as Rixon (1991) affirms, YLs learn more effectively or at least are more cooperative, when teaching includes enjoyable activities.

Implementing Games

Although there are a myriad of games available for the YL teacher, successfully introducing them into the classroom is not always easy. There are many pitfalls to be avoided. The following is a checklist for teachers to use when choosing a game:

YL SPECIFIC AREA QUESTIONS FOR TEACHERS TO ASK THEMSELVES
AGE Is it age appropriate? Is it too simple for teens? Is it too difficult for primary?
LANGUAGE Is the language level appropriate? Does it practice the target language?
SKILLS & ABILITIES Are the skills & abilities required a suitable match for my learners?

Does it provide the correct level of challenge?

ENGAGING Is it engaging for the learners? Is there an element of competition?

Can they achieve something?

TIME EFFICIENT Is it time efficient? Is it easy to set up? Will it be over in 5 minutes?
AUTONOMY Will it develop learner autonomy? Can they repeat the game themselves?
VARIETY Can all learners participate? Is this different from our usual “games”?

 

Answering these questions can help teachers decide whether a game is suitable for their learners in all areas, e.g. ability, preferences, linguistic knowledge, etc.

Games in Action

The YL teacher has the opportunity to not only teach children a foreign language, but to make the journey worthwhile. Playing games can give a very different note to language learning and language development. The specific games not only increase the dynamics of the student-centred classroom and add pleasure to the lesson, but allow language teachers to evaluate and assess students’ performance and progress. The following are a few examples of this:

The (Classroom) Management of Games

As aforementioned, choosing games requires careful deliberation, leading to the practical side of setting up games in the classroom. Teachers must always plan how to set up and run the game, taking into account the age of the particular YLs.

Lexical set (Games):

In any game, specific lexical sets are used repeatedly. These should be taught to the YLs at the beginning of the lesson so as they can understand and use the lexical items as required. These can be added to depending on the level of the YLs. The following are words which learners may use in the games outlined above:

games image

Instructions:
The instructions for games follow the same pattern as those for any activity in the YL classroom. These should be taught as early as possible and used as often as possible. Introducing these via flashcards, pictures, mime or description will depend on the age and ability of the young learner. The lexis of instruction is as follows:Instructions:

Functional Language:

Language focus should be extended to the functional language needed in order to play the game. These chunks enable YLs to interact with one another and practice the L2 (foreign language) in a natural way (see Brewster, Ellis and Girard, 2002). As the level of the YL increases, the complexity of functional language does so as well:

Incorporating functional language exploits the use of games even further, adding to the benefits of their use.

Using Games for Assessment and Evaluation

As McKay (2006) has argued, early childhood teaching is based on principles of child growth and development. Therefore, games are vital in primary language learning, and help increase students’ motivation in a less intimidating and more child-friendly environment, whilst also giving valuable insights to the YL teacher in the process, inviting more spontaneity from the student. When using games as assessment tasks, the YLs classroom is offered ‘valuable ways to unlock the instructional power of games and support a student-centred environment’ (ibid). Teachers can present their students with interesting and engaging games, as the ones mentioned above, which can be used to assess the YLs without the traditional testing approach. The games included above can work as assessment tools to examine students’ grammar, vocabulary, listening skills and comprehension. As games take place, the teacher can monitor the students, record their progress, and use the information gathered as input when grading. This approach can lower anxiety levels and help YLs perform better, while also help them reach higher levels of language development, through more child-friendly means of assessment.

Conclusion

Using games in the YLs’ classroom is an added pleasure that is full of potential and benefits for the learners. Although games are enjoyable, teachers must be aware of basic classroom management techniques in order to apply them, as even the simplest of games can prove challenging. It is vital to know how games can assist in the students’ progress and provide the teacher with information that may be difficult to gather from other forms of activities and contexts. Games in the YLs’ classroom play a special role in their learning and L2 development and it is important to include them in the language lesson as they encourage YLs to use the L2 communicatively and creatively.

 

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References:

  1. Brewster, J., Ellis, G., and Girard, D. (2002). The Primary English Teacher’s Guide. Harlow: Pearson Education Limited.
  2. Firsten, Richard, and Patricia Killian. (2002).The ELT Grammar Book. Alta Book Center Publishers, Appendix 3.
  3. McKay, P. (2006). Assessing Young Learners. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
  4. Read, C. (2007). 500 Activities for the Primary Classroom. Oxford: Macmillan Education.
  5. Rixon, S. (1991). The Role of Fun and Games Activities in Teaching Young Learners. In Brumfit, C., Moon, J. and Tongue, R. Teaching English to Children. London: Collins ELT.
  6. Pinter, A. (2011). Children Learning Second Languages. UK: Palgrave Macmillan.

 

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